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ISIS: A New Threat to World

Written by Saptaparni Raha

 

ABSTRACT

 

Islamic state of Iraq and Syria commonly known as ISIS , is the largest terrorist group from Islamic state that is the largest threat to international community and to world peace .It is to be concerned as the greatest tension among European public as per September 2014 . Leaders have discussed several measures to counter ISIS but the success is yet so far due to their strong propaganda and great skill of influence to others . Since it has taken birth in 2004 by Abu Musab al- Zarqawi and  it established as the successful terrorist group and able to create a threat towards world peace within ten years . Due to the advancement of technologies and widespread effect of internet which helps to connect us with everyone in every part of world they used it as a vital tool to recruit common people in their group . They use women in their propaganda to influence opinion in wide scale . They aims to communicate for promoting their ideologies throughout the world .

Author in this article wants to highlight the origin and introduction of ISIS . The propaganda , communication strategy , recruitment procedure and also about their missions would be discussed through this article .

 

 INTRODUCTION :

The Islamic State in Iraq and Syria was earlier affiliate to al quaeda spread in various geographical area . Once it succeed to control over large portions in Syria and Iraq ,surprisingly it able to growth its rapid extension of its terror in the entire world . It has taken its birth with the help of Abu Mus’ab al-Zarqawi recognised as the founding father of this organisation . He dropped out from his school , engaged himself in theft and turned into a drunkard person after the death of his father . So he was enrolled himself in Islamic course with the help of his mother . After introduce with salafism regarding to promote religious purity and literal interpretation of quran he commit his life to pursuit of religious glory .  He started his carrier as aspiring jihadist in 1989 when he was in Afghanistan to fight against red army . He returned from Jordan and collaborated with his spiritual teacher Abu Muhammad al Maqdisi in the year of 1992 whose ideological sophistication and advanced knowledge of Islam helps to strengthened his commitment to the black and white world view  endorsed by salafism . By the year of 1994 he managed to draw a terrorist plot that helps to arrest Zaraqawi  and Maqdisi with guns and explosive substance . He released from prison in the year of 1999 through jordan’s king Abudullah and already planned to reach out to Osama Bin Laden to get blessing and organisational support from Al queda leader .

Then it was established in Iraq as a division of AQ  in the year of 2004 but it was more brutal than AQ that often creates conflict with its central leadership . So by the year of 2006 he was killed in an American  airstrikes . It was able to widespread their terror by the year of 2014 and now concerned as the greatest threat to the international community and to world peace .

The main reason behind their success is their strong propaganda and greatest manipulation skill for recruiting people from entire world . Now it controls over large parts of Syria and Iraq . They rule with a population of 8 million that an area larger than UK and raise millions of dollar by smuggling of oil , antiques , extortion of money and they imposed tax upon people living in areas under its control .

Recruitment And Propaganda :

Propaganda is the systematic attempt to influence opinion on a wide scale . It is a communication through which they promotes their plan that usually address the mass audience . During the second world war a British propagandist named Michel Balfour defines that it is the art to induce people . Basically it used to serve the purpose of being the strong tool in warfare . ISIS uses their strong manipulating skill to communicate with people through their media centre and social media to recruit in their group . Their main propaganda is to recruit common people , children and the women . They introduce “ jihadi feminism” to use women for the purpose of sexual exploitation and enslavement . So  it is no wrong to say that they wants  back the rule of East India Company and set the colonialism for this entire world .

ISIS  has a media centre called Al-Hayat and the logo is identical to Al – jazeera .   The Arabic word Al- Hayat is life that established in early 2014 . To set a control over many cities in Syria and Iraq they established separate media division . They have started their online publication “ Dabiq” on a regular basis . It is translated into English , French and German to receive a wide scale of audience . This publication contains their daily life in ISIS area , portrays a romanticised image of their caliphate to restore the golden Islamic age . It also provides religious teachings and news of their social activities . They tried to use their Islamic terminology to spread their message throughout the world like : tawhid ( unity) manhaj ( truth seeking ) , hijrah ( migration) , jihad ( holy war ) and jamah ( community ).

 

They also shared beheading videos which show infidels in the desert of Iraq and Syria with a knife to their throat . They used HD quality cameras and good sound qualities to make these videos . They used to place microphone on the victim to make it more realistic .

 

They also uses social media platforms like twitter , YouTube , Face book to allow individual for communication freely without maintaining any hierarchies . Now a days social media creates a huge impact to inform and aware about any information , it helps to create a new public space where people can connect with the world by staying in their home . So its an advantage to them . They have huge friends and followers into their account that depicts their level of influence and skill of manipulation . There has hardly any followers /following ratio on their twitter account . The mean ratio is 63 which shows that most of the accounts have more followers than friends . It  has been reported during the research period that they have twitted almost a  total of 25,403 tweets and deleted about 17,948 tweets from their account . They tweets 819 messages per day and deletes about 579 .

Interview was  taken about 182 males from 35 countries and 38 females from 18 countries . Males were represented from 41 ethnicities and about 51.1 percent were from foreign countries . 34.1 percent were belongs from Iraq and 14.8 percent from Syria . Half of them almost joined at the age between 26 years to 29.5 years old during the period of their interview . As per their statement they were a bit older than the conventional expectations of terrorist ages . The main reason for joining was unemployment , discrimination , marginalization etc . On average 44.5 percent of men were unmarried and 46.7 were married and rest 4.4 percent were divorced . 65.4 percent of men belongs to middle class background and 11.8 percent having education and represented a Varity of occupation before joining . But among them students were also there as a member .   Females were represented from 22 ethnicities and 76.3 percent were from foreign countries . Only 13.2 and 10.5 percents respectively were from Iraq and Syria . 28.9 percent were unmarried , 60.5 percent were married and 7.9 percent were divorced , 5.3 percent were separated . This picture shows their policy to recruit women to marry or stay locked up inside the dirty , overcrowded guest house .

According to the thirty eight year old Dutch Munir Hasan he belongs from the Moroccan descent and his parents were got divorced when he was just age of 15years and started to live a criminal life . He used to smoke and drink with his friends , lived an undisciplined life with his friends by stealing cars and enjoy with women . At the age of 23 he started to focus on his religion , praying and visit to mosque . He also have started to make other friends . He recalls that how the  Dutch anti immigrant politician create problem to him for promoting the discrimination . He used to have long beard and long cloths for that he faced the discrimination . After numerous bouts with the law and failed three times in marriage he decided to join ISIS .

The 46 year old Kimberly heard us a different story . She belongs from Canada and started to fail at his university when she was at trial . She used to suffers from a deep distress and used to watch television news that shows trial of a serial rapist and used to assault many of Canadian women . She was unable to focus and stopped of slipping and suffers with nightmares . Then he started to have friendship with a man over twitter who already was in ISIS . He started to talk with him and slowly the man seduced her  give a proposal of marriage while she was in grave emotional  distress over her earlier traumatic experiences . He encouraged her to escape from her problem by coming to Syria .

The 30 years of Abu Fatima joined ISIS after a lot of discussion and great influence of a close friend .

As per the 29 years old Abu Sara from Tunisia in the year of 2012 “ I used to sit in my room and drink with some music and so . In mosques , I used to  see people with long beard saying to me you must stop drinking , that is wrong . You have to pray with us . I never prayed in my life . After some time , I realised I was wrong , So I quit  alcohol , just go to night clubs and smoke cigarettes . After a while , I stopped going to clubs and wanted to pray to feel good as they claim . I wanted to save my life .”

  1. Child Recruitment : ISIS not only recruits young stars and elderly people but also they trying to manipulate family who are always suffering from poverty , discrimination and cannot give their children a proper education , they send their children to earn money for the family and various group of armed conflict recruit them in their group and never let them to go back in their family .

A high school boy was found to drove a car carrying with 280 kilograms of explosive into the 50 South Lebanon base and killed almost 20 Israeli and Lebanese forces on 27th November 1985 , during Syria’s military occupation of Lebanon . Children whosoever staying in ISIS  territory in Syria lives a very stressful life . They growing up by witnessing the air strikes . bombings or other violence . Some of even are victim of that violence . Mainly children those are from single family and having less adult supervision or neglected parents are the main target of ISIS  .

According to an interview with the mother of a 12 years old boy who was recruited by ISIS  by applying their strategic significance of mosque to select him :

The boy was a frequent visitor of a local mosque . There he used to listen speeches given by a preacher by the alias Abu Al Faruq and then gradually he become closer to that person .

Basically the recruiter worked hard to gain the trust of children . They has the ability to build up the close relation with a children who have the potential of work as soldier and the story is they comes to their family who supports the terrorist group . They even buy foods and gifts for the children to gain their trust and attending school , mosque . Media also plays an impressive role to continue the recruitment procedure . Family who does not shows their willingness they are subjected to coercion .

 

  1. Manifesto For Women : ISIS published a guideline for woman named as women of the Islamic state at the beginning of 2015 . This was published in Arabic on various online jihadi forums . Later on it was translated by British think tank Quillam foundation and provides the insight of the lives of women .This manifesto was drafted by the al-khansa brigade . It is a female militia set up of ISIS that monitors female . They need to follow strict guidelines of behaviour for women and shall enforce rules from the recruitment procedure only . Woman need to be in black dress including their shoes and shall cover every inch of body have to wear gloves to cover their hands and fingers .

                       

The translated version of manifesto containing of 41 pages states that they should remain hidden and veiled . Fashion shops are banned and consider is as work of devil . Woman has some specific roles under Islam and one of fundamental role among them is to become mother and serve her husband and children . They are only allowed to go outside to wage jihad when men are not there or study religion. Female doctors and teachers are permitted to leave the house but shall strictly adhere to the guidelines . It is also mentioned that women shall not go to their workplace more than three days in a week and shall not even involve in long working hours .

 

They are only allowed to have religious education . Only children between seven to nine years they shall have fiqh ( understanding ) , Quranic Arabic ( writing and reading ) and science ( accounting and natural science ). From ten to twelve years they shall have more religious study especially fiqh related to women and rulings about marriage . From thirteen to fifteen years they will study about how to raise the children . But they need to married by the age of sixteen or seventeen when they are still young and active .

They also have a concept of fatwa that concerns who is eligible to issue Fatwa and when it should be issued . Fatwa means the legal opinion given by a mufti or cleric in a situation where Islamic laws are not clear . or can be interpreted in different ways . It is considered as the true message of god . A man is permitted to marry for few weeks or for hours to have “halal’’ sex with her so that he can pursue his jihadi mission more effectively on the battle  field .

 

ISIS also claims slavery as a duty of Islam through their online published English language magazine Dabiq in the year of 2014. They also released a sexual guidelines for woman where it has mentioned that a man can intercourse with her female slave when she has not attain the puberty if she is fit for the intercourse .

 

Activities Of ISIS :  Since 2013 ISIS have done several activities and spread threats to all over the world . A glimpse of  those few incidents are given below .

In Iraq they bombed a car and killed 28 pilgrims and injured 60 among them who were returning from Karbala .

In Baghdad they have done a bomb explosion in roadside near a minibus that killed four pilgrims and injured 15 others . After this incident in the month of January a bomber blew himself up during a politician’s  relative funeral in Tuz that killed about 42 people and injured 75 others . It was resulted to custody to the perpetrators and extradited to Belgium.

At the middle of 2014 they targeted the Jewish museum of Belgium in Brussels where a gunman Mehdi was identified , opened fire at the museum . It resulted three spot dead . In France an ISIL supporter entered into the police station who screamed the word “ Allahu Akbar” and stabbed three police officers . At the end of the he was shot dead .

 

In USA a person converted in Islam and joined in ISIL then attacks two police officers with a hatchet. During this incident when officers are attempt to shoot him a civilian was wounded . After that police killed the perpetrator by shot dead .

On     March  2015 in Tunisia this group was engaged in mass shooting that killed 22 foreign tourist and 50 wounded . At the end of the day all of the perpetrators killed in the explosions .In the year of 2017 March it was informed by National Investigation Agency that 19 cases have been registered related to ISIS in India . Among them 11 charge sheet has been filed by them .

 

On February 10, 2020 ISIS  releases recent propaganda that based on “ new phase’’ geared that targets the Israeli and Jewish interest . They previously referred the chemical weapons in several propaganda graphics that demonstrate the group’s persistent support and interest in this attack . NYPD was not aware of any active or specific threat at this time that may serve as a catalyst for increased violence against Jewish communities . There is no new threat for the New York city but as per their recent propaganda ISIS calls for attacks against Jewish community that shall increase the importance of vigilance of suspicious activity at houses of worship and the place of their gatherings .

On 26th July of this year UN reported that a significant number of ISIS  terrorist are present in Kerala and Karnataka . That group has about 150 to 200 militants from India , Pakistan , Bangladesh and Mayanmar . They are planning to attacks in the region.

Again on 23th August , 2020 it has been reported that Delhi police arrested a 36 year old Mohammad Mushtaqeem Khan a 36 year old suspected . It has been said that a huge amount of explosive with a jacket has been recovered from that person . He was planned of a terror strike in a football area by using a high intensity pressure cooker based improvised explosive device .

 

Fight Against ISIS : Whole world are now engaging to fight against ISIS  for maintaining the  International peace and security . Author would like to highlight the India and Americas national strategy as well as UNSC role to prevent this group to spread the threat into the entire world .

The American Military Strategy To Combat Against ISIS : President Barrack Obama in the year of 2014 , on 24th August authorised a military operation that will involve in limited airstrikes which was targeted at jihadist positions in Iraq . It was nothing worth noting as it were taken with the consent and at the request of the Iraqi Government .On the other hand the Iraqi forces were also getting the support from the US forces and  also the humanitarian aid , airdropping water and food were provided to them . After this announcement he emphasised that he had consulted with the United Nation and assured that US would not engage any war with Iraq . He also have given an option to use the American ground forces . He stressed upon the development of a consensus between religious and ethnic minorities in Iraq to strengthen the Iraqi security force .

Obama also pointed out that at the beginning of September 2014 US announced to create the board of international coalition to fight against Islamic state but unfortunately only 65 countries made a commitment to fight against it . The object of this board were to provide the military support for the allies who fights the jihadist , create an obstruction of free flow of foreign fighters and to eliminate the source of financial aid for that organisation . It also aims to prove the humanitarian aid , military support i.e weapons ,equipments etc .

 

UN Security Council passed an resolution on that year regarding the action of international coalition . It called all its member states for asking the help to stop the foreign fighters into the ranks of the jihadist and to suppress the financial aid.

The board of International coalition to fight against Islamic state was based upon four pillars . 1 ) the first pillar was to assume the deployment of systematic air campaigns against the terrorist for assisting the Iraqi forces to fight on the ground even though   the president announced that airstrikes may extend to Syria . 2) the second pillar    was concerning upon the unlimited support for forces to fight the jihadist on ground and it shall send nearly 500 Americans strategist to the Middle East to provide them intelligence support and training . 3) the third pillar was based upon to strengthen the international cooperation in counter terrorism operation to help with many issues like to stop the funding for them . 4 ) the last pillar was concerning upon to provide the humanitarian aid .

But the defeat of ISIS is   only possible when it will get the cooperation between different ethnic and religious groups . Without having any political reconciliation the effectiveness of military strategy will  be shorten . USA shall provide adequate support of training , military consultation , weapons etc to target the group and they shall also help to organise the international cooperation in a wider range to combat against the financing of that organisation and prevent the foreign fighters to join in that group .

Indian Framework To Fight Against ISIS :    

The ISIS residence in India dates back its history when a document titled “ A brief history of Islamic State Caliphate : The Caliphate according to the Prophet recovered in Pakistan . It recommends that the next Islamic State target in the region should be India . Its aim can only be achieved when all jihadi groups under its leadership shall unite together that shall not only have the aim for occasional strikes but it would only launch a full fledged attack . Ghazwa –e Hind ( Final Battle for India ) is called by terror organisation to propel jihad in the Indian sub – continent . This Islamic terms is not mentioned in some hadiths that predicts a final and last battle in India . It resulted a conquest of the whole India sub continent by Muslim warriors .

This group revealed its jihad in Bengal on its 12th edition of Dabiq ( online magazine ) where it plans for Bengal by first uniting terror groups that says the mujahidin of Bengal realised that there was no room for blind partnership towards any organisation once khilafah had been declared and that there was no longer legitimacy for any independent jihad organisation.

India can fight against of terrorism by way of social integration . India shall remove the religious and cultural discrimination between Hindu and Muslim and unite together . They shall respect each others religion , physical attribute , language or attire .

Another way is of counter radicalisation . In India there was identified small group of people as ISIS by police interview which revealed that their radicalisation was initiated by very violent video by their leaders based in Pakistan . They were attracted to their leaders by their face book account and gradually recruited in their group.  Almost 204 million of people are using smart phones in India . In the year of 2016 when Indian police are engaging in the series of arrest that turned out the first exposure to radicalisation . All videos and contents are shared with messaging platform , Bluetooth etc , So it is quite an easy task  to keep a track upon those content . India can also find a way of counter radicalisation is by way of blocking the violent material available on net . Information technologies Act of 2000 empowers govt to order for websites or social media pages that can be use to block those content . but one problem in this is if you try to block them it can block be block from your side but still it will be available into the dark net. So technology shall be improved a lot .

If the counter radicalisation method fails then it should adopt the de radicalization method .If such candidate found in joining ISIS then such candidate must be examine on the basis of his radicalisation . If the person is ahead of many step then only he shall serve the jail , otherwise that person shall be considered for the de radicalization programme by using reformative theory . On the other hand parents shall also keep a watch on their young children . If they found any behavioural and psychological changes upon them , can take few step to curb it .

The Government of India spread their security to combat with terrorism . It awarded capital punishment to 5 Indian Mujahidden by NIA special court for carrying out blast in Hyderabad in the year of 2013 . Government also arrested 90 ISIS sympathisers across the country . Rigorous imprisonment of 7 to 10 years was also awarded in an NIA  case for waging war and criminal conspiracy by United National Liberation Front . They also declared ISIS  as a terrorist organisation and include them under the first schedule of unlawful activities prevention Act . Government also decided to maintain religious harmony  They declared Islamic  Research Foundation as an unlawful association under section 3 of unlawful activities ( prevention) Act . Three new branches of NIA are started to be operate at Kolkata , Raipur and Jammu . To create a national data base of seizure/detection of face currency note a new software has launched .

 

Government also have started LEFT WING EXTREMISM  by initiating new doctrine “ SAMADHAN” .

S : Smart policing and leadership.

A : Aggressive Strategy.

M: Motivation And Training.

A : Actionable Intelligence

D : Dashboard for development and key performance indicators.

H : Harnessing Technology for development and security.

A : Action plan for each theatre.

N: No access to financing

Not only these another new policy was launched called National Policy And Action Plan Launched in the year of 2015 to combat Left Wing Extremism with security , development and to ensure rights and entitlements for local communities . It also using the cutting edge technologies in LWE theatre and frames key performance indicators for the LWE theatre .

 

Conclusion :  

To fight against terrorism United Nation Security Council has passed a number of resolutions by recognising the INTERPOL’s global role to combat with terrorism and specially to fight against the threat   posed by foreign terrorist fighters . The agreement between United Nation’s counter terrorism committee executive directorate and INTERPOL’s agreement means two bodies can work together to implement the UNSC resolutions . Special notice given by United Nation Security Council and Interpol is aiming to alert all member countries to individuals and entities associated with Al –qaida and Taliban as listed by the 1267 committee of the UNSC .

  After taking so much measurement there is no change in the scenario rather their activities are increasing day by day . So to prevent them we need to remove the discrimination among religions . We need to respect each other culture and our religious thoughts . Not only this we need to stop the people who supports terrorism to support that organisation . We need to identify that how they manipulates people to join their organisation then need to create an awareness programme of it , if necessary need to organise workshop , seminars to talk about them . For children parents need to take utmost care of them as they have pure mind with full of innocence so its very easy to manipulate them . Parents should check on their behaviour and others activity on a regular basis . If there is any change in their behaviour they shall talk with them and if necessary can take the appoint of psychological counselling . People should be aware of the dark net even if necessary proper training can also be given to them so that if they by chance enter into that they can bring themselves out from that world . Unemployment and poverty are one of the reason to join any of the terrorist group. So Government must take some policy as soon as policy to prevent it . United Nation can come with a treaty and make it mandatory for each and every of its member states to ratify the treaty for maintaining the international peace and security . This is not a single person or any single state job to fight against terrorism but it is the job of everyone and we need act unity . United State can also pass a resolution to ban all of the country that are engaging with terrorism from all sought of assistance . They will be not allowed to mix up with the people of other state .

After all we need to implement all the laws properly and specially need to fight against corruption also . Because it is one of the reason in this situation for that laws are not properly being implemented .

 

 

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Katarzyna Jasko , Ahmad saiful rijal bin hasan et.al: ISIS it’s history , ideology and psychology : Research Gate

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Assad Almohammad : ISIS child soldiers in Syria , International centre for counter terrorism –The Hague , ICCT

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Suleyman Ozeren , M Salih Elmas , et:al : An analysis of ISIS propaganda and recruitment activities targeting Turkish – speaking –population : Research Gate

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